# What are the advantages of fiber optics over copper as a transmission medium? Is there any downside of using fiber optics over copper?

Last Updated: 13-Jul-23
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THE PHYSICAL LAYER

PROBLEMS

1. Compute the Fourier coefficients for the function f(t) = t (0 ? t ? 1).

2. A noiseless 4-kHz channel is sampled every 1 msec. What is the maximum data rate? How does the maximum data rate change if the channel is noisy, with a signal-to-noise ratio of 30 dB?

3. Television channels are 6 MHz wide. How many bits/sec can be sent if four-level digital signals are used? Assume a noiseless channel.

4. If a binary signal is sent over a 3-kHz channel whose signal-to-noise ratio is 20 dB, what is the maximum achievable data rate?

5. What signal-to-noise ratio is needed to put a T1 carrier on a 50-kHz line?

6. What are the advantages of fiber optics over copper as a transmission medium? Is there any downside of using fiber optics over copper?

7. How much bandwidth is there in 0.1 microns of spectrum at a wavelength of 1 micron?

8. It is desired to send a sequence of computer screen images over an optical fiber. The screen is 2560 1600 pixels, each pixel being 24 bits. There are 60 screen images per second. How much bandwidth is needed, and how many microns of wavelength are needed for this band at 1.30 microns?

9. Is the Nyquist theorem true for high-quality single-mode optical fiber or only for copper wire?

10. Radio antennas often work best when the diameter of the antenna is equal to the wavelength of the radio wave. Reasonable antennas range from 1 cm to 5 meters in diameter. What frequency range does this cover?

11. A laser beam 1 mm wide is aimed at a detector 1 mm wide 100 m away on the roof of a building. How much of an angular diversion (in degrees) does the laser have to have before it misses the detector?

12. The 66 low-orbit satellites in the Iridium project are divided into six necklaces around the earth. At the altitude they are using, the period is 90 minutes. What is the average interval for handoffs for a stationary transmitter?

13. Calculate the end-to-end transit time for a packet for both GEO (altitude: 35,800 km), MEO (altitude: 18,000 km) and LEO (altitude: 750 km) satellites.

14. What is the latency of a call originating at the North Pole to reach the South Pole if the call is routed via Iridium satellites? Assume that the switching time at the satellites is 10 microseconds and earths radius is 6371 km.