1. In vicarious emotional conditioning, the emotional responses that are generated in oneself are
c. either CSs or USs.
2. Which of the following would be most likely interfere with training a cat to meow at the sight of a bird rather than quietly stalk it.
a. instinctive drift
c. CS-US relevance
3. Which of the following theorists would least agree with the notion that learning can take place even in the absence of any change in overt behavior?
4. Research on media violence has revealed
a. no evidence of an effect on aggressive behavior.
b. some evidence of an effect on being a victim of aggressive behavior.
c. both a and b
d. neither a nor b
5. The word "bomb" is paired with a mild shock. If you later find yourself feeling anxious when hearing the word "calm", that would best be described as an example of
a. stimulus generalization
b. stimulus discrimination
c. semantic discrimination
d. semantic generalization
6. In pigeons, an excessive pattern of aggressive behavior is most likely to develop as a side-effect to which schedule of reinforcement?
7. I often look at my cell phone and rarely floss my teeth. According to the ____, it is therefore likely that I can use ___ to reinforce ___ .
a. response deprivation hypothesis; looking at my cellphone; flossing my teeth
b. response deprivation hypothesis; flossing my teeth; looking at my cellphone
c. Premack principle; flossing my teeth; looking at my cellphone
d. Premack principle; looking at my cellphone; flossing my teeth
8. Tina is obsessed with making sure that her alarm clock is set and has to check it a dozen times before going to sleep. Chances are that this behavior is being maintained by a process of
a. negative reinforcement
b. positive punishment
c. negative punishment
d. positive reinforcement
9. In general, ___ are more impulsive than ___.
a. older people; children
b. people; dogs
c. both a and b are correct
d. neither a nor b are correct
10. According to the _____ effect, behavior that has been maintained on a(n) ___ schedule of reinforcement will slowly extinguish.
a. positive contrast; generalized
b. peak shift; intermittent
c. negative contrast effect; differential
d. partial reinforcement; intermittent
11. Many people have a tendency to freeze in response to danger, even when it is counterproductive, because freezing
a. has been negatively reinforced by the removal of danger.
b. has been positively punished by the presentation of danger.
c. is elicited as a natural response to danger.
d. is elicited as a learned response to danger.
12. Contrast effects are typically investigated with the use of
a. mixed schedules
b. chained schedules
c. concurrent schedules
d. multiple schedules
13. A punishment procedure that involves not being allowed to watch a favourite TV program would be an example of a ___ procedure; a punishment procedure that involves a cookie being taken away would be an example of a ___ procedure.
a. time-out; response cost
b. response cost; time-out
c. response cost; response cost
d. time-out; time-out
14. People sometimes behave less efficiently than rats and pigeons when exposed to certain contingencies of reinforcement. Which of the following is the most likely cause for this?
a. our enhanced ability to delay gratification
b. our tendency to engage in adjunctive behaviors when bored
c. our tendency to generate rules for our behavior
d. our enhanced ability to learn through observation
15. According to the Premack approach, a(n) _____ behavior can be used to punish a(n) _____ behavior.
a. overt; covert
b. high frequency; low frequency
c. low frequency; high frequency
d. covert; overt
16. The number of pages I read each day is a _____ measure of behavior.
17. The ___ in operant conditioning is most closely related to the ___ in classical conditioning.
a. SD; US
b. reinforcer; CR
c. reinforcer; UR
d. SD; CS
18. Which of the following would most likely be an example of an abolishing operation for an appetitive stimulus?
a. becoming more and more annoyed by your neighbour`s loud television
b. not being able to watch your favourite TV show for a week
c. eating lots of donuts.
d. getting used to climbing the stairs to your apartment each day
19. On a concurrent VI 60-sec VI 20-sec schedule of reinforcement, the matching law predicts that ___ of responses will be directed toward the VI 20-sec alternative.